Helen Suzman och apartheid

Den 1 januari avled den sydafrikanska apartheidmotståndaren Helen Suzman, 91 år gammal. Hon var länge liberal parlamentsledamot, från 1953 till 1989. 1959 lämnade hon det bredare United Party och var med och bildade det marknadsliberalt inriktade antiapartheidpartiet Progressive Party. Som enda ledamot för detta parti i det vita parlamentet fram till 1974 (då fler från partiet valdes in), var hon också den enda som var kompromisslöst mot rasdiskrimineringen. Partiet bytte namn ett antal gånger, bl.a. pga tillskott från fraktioner i andra partier, och kom att heta i tur och ordning Progressive Reform Party, Progressive Federal Party, Democratic Party, och nu senast Democratic Alliance.

Huvudtendensen i partiet har alltid varit liberalismen, vilken i Sydafrika har mer gemensamt med hur termen avses i Europa som klassisk liberalism, än med den moderna amerikanska termen för ”liberalism”, som mer avser vänster och socialdemokrati. På The Helen Suzman Foundations hemsida klargörs även detta:

”Notes on Definitions of Liberalism

The Helen Suzman Foundation supports and promotes liberal democratic policies and ideals in the South African political situation. Views such as these are very similar to those held by liberals in Europe and certain countries in the East, where liberals are non-racial in their views, support free enterprise and are generally sympathetic to individualism, although their views on, and support for, welfare policies vary both within countries and between countries.

As we understand it, in the United States of America, however, the way in which ”liberals” are defined differs from the South African and European definition. Liberals in the United States include many people who hold ”progressive” views in the sense that they are less sympathetic to free enterprise and individualism and more consistently supportive of public welfare. In Europe and South Africa such people are very likely to regard themselves as ”social democrats” or socialists, which are less familiar categories in the United States.

American visitors to this website should bear these differences in mind when reading about The Helen Suzman Foundation and its mission.”

Tony Leon, som var partiledare 1994-2007, anser sig vara influerad av den klassiska liberalismen, och var under tre månader 2008 visiting fellow vid libertarianska Cato Institute i Washington, DC. De libertarianska sydafrikanerna Frances Kendall och Leon Louw, författare till den av Timbro översatta Sydafrika efter apartheid (1987), har även samarbetat med Tony Leons parti.

M.a.o. ser vi här ett klart samband mellan stöd för individualism och kapitalism och motstånd mot rasism, tvärtemot vad bl.a. socialister brukar hävda. Olof Palme sa att apartheid var en förlängning av kapitalismen, vilket ju är absurt med tanke på att apartheid är statlig intervention som förhindrar den fria marknadens funktion, samtidigt som rasism är antiindividualism. Detta blir uppenbart när man läser denna översikt över apartheidlagstiftningen, som den sydafrikanske objektivisten Barry Kayton tillhandahåller:

”Here follows a snapshot of Apartheid

Glen-Grey Act 1894
Government violates property rights in 1894 (by outlawing farms below a
certain size).
Impact: many successful farmers (black and white) were forced to sell their
farms and to seek work on the mines.

Apprenticeship Act 1922 (1944)
Government destroys the free market in apprenticeship by setting standards that discriminated against black men who wanted to become apprentices.
Impact: severely retarded the development of skills and wealth amongst
black workers.

Wage Act 1925
Government destroys the free market for labour by setting wages.
Impact: discouraged capitalists from promoting skilled black workers (who
were willing to work at lower wages than whites).

Mines and Works Act 1926
Government violates freedom of trade and labour in mines and industry by
reserving most skilled jobs for whites only.
Impact: severely retarded the development of skills and wealth amongst
black workers.

Immorality Act 1927
Government abolishes your freedom to freely choose a lover (branding
relationships between different races as immoral acts).
Impact: severely retarded the process of cultural mixing.

Land Act 1913/1936
Government violates property rights by nationalising land (reserving the
best 87% of land for white South Africans and the remaining poorest 13% of
land for black South Africans).
Impact: prevented blacks from acquiring and trading property and everything that the ownership of property makes possible.

Trading and Occupation of Land Restriction Act 1943
Government violates property rights by prohibiting the trading of land
between Indians and whites.
Impact: severely hampered property development amongst Indians.

Black Urban Areas Consolidation Act 1945
Government further violates your right to liberty and property by
consolidating the powers of officials to interfere with black business
rights, housing and land allocation in urban areas.
Impact: severely retarded the process of economic and cultural development amongst black South Africans.

Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 1949
Government abolishes your freedom to marry a husband or wife of your own choice.
Impact: destroyed families; destroyed relationships; destroyed individuals.

Population Registration Act 1950
Government classifies and registers everyone in the population by race.
Impact: the whole social fabric is defined in terms of race; government
thus empowers itself to perform mass social engineering on a racial basis.

Group Areas Act 1950
Government violates property rights by forcing you to live only in designated group areas.
Impact: mass forced-removals of blacks from newly-classified ”white areas”
to ”black areas”; unprecedented government destruction of property and
wealth amongst blacks.

Native Building Workers Act 1951
Government violates freedom of labourers and trade by prohibiting black
workers from doing skilled building work in white areas.
Impact: one of the last opportunities for skills development and
wealth-creation amongst blacks is destroyed; trade between whites and
blacks is now largely limited to blacks offering their (artificially-cheapened)
labour.

Bantu Authorities Act 1951
Government takes away South African citizenship from millions of
individuals making them aliens in their own country and subject to ”bantu authorities” in ”homelands” under government control.
Impact: even if you are born in South Africa, if you are black you have no
right to live in the country and you are forced to move to a severely
under-developed homeland (unless you can meet special conditions). Try to imagine being born in Manhattan but being forced to move to the rural hills of Columbia or Bolivia.

Reservation of Separate Amenities Act 1953
Government enforces separation of races in all public amenities (libraries,
museums, transport, hospitals, parks, beaches) – and even in private
hotels, restaurants and cinemas.
Impact: black South Africans at every turn are forced to live as
second-class citizens.

Public Safety Act 1953
Government empowers itself to declare a State of Emergency when public
safety is threatened, and imposes fines, imprisonment and whippings on
protesters.
Impact: thousands are injured and killed in peaceful protests in subsequent
years.

Bantu Education Act 1953
Government socialises education for blacks, creating an inferior,
inefficient, ineffective system of education designed specifically to
prepare blacks for nothing more than manual labour in the service of whites.
Impact: mass mental abuse of millions of children at the hands of the state.

Native Labour Act 1953
Government violates freedom of association and labour by forcing trade
unions to be for whites only or for blacks (”natives”) only.
Impact: prevents co-ordination of efforts amongst black and white workers;
prevents the development of common interests; undermines their combined strength.

Natives Resettlement Act 1954
Government removes blacks from some areas, forcing them to resettle
elsewhere.
Impact: mass destruction of property and wealth amongst blacks.

Natives (Urban Areas) Amendment Act 1955
Government forces blacks to carry a ”pass” book to control the ”influx” or
flow of ”natives” from rural to urban areas (and to empower the state to
force those born in urban areas to move to rural areas).
Impact: destruction of opportunities for development and wealth-creation
amongst blacks.

Industrial Conciliation Act 1956
Government violates freedom of association by making it illegal for black
workers to strike (thus giving the illusion of ”conciliation”).
Impact: black workers can be arrested for striking even when they have not
agreed to the wages their employers decide to pay.”

Läs även min senare bloggpost Antirasismens liberala historia, med fokus på USA.

One response to “Helen Suzman och apartheid

  1. Helen Suzman har varit en inspiration för mig när jag
    bodde och arbetad i Sydafrika 1952-1960 efter utbildning
    i USA och Yale University.Hon var en utmärkt politisk
    ledare och opinionsutbildare.
    Varför jag lämnad Sydafrika var Sovjets understöd till
    Fidel Castros arme, 70,000 man, i Angola på gränsen till
    Namebia var Sydafrika behåll 14,000 soldater som försvar vid gränsen. Jag bestämd att flytta till Sverige som på
    karta var nära Sovjet, och i Sverige har jag hjälpt med
    fredsfrågor och förbättring av relationer med Sovjet för
    att stoppa socialistisk krigsföring i andra länder. Nu driver jag Baltic Mission for Peace, http://www.lohne.se
    Tel. 031-291509, 0708-690400, Göteborg
    Norra Vaktmansgatan 65, 42668 Västra Frölunda

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